References added on 25th June, 2004

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Abd Alla, M. D., Jackson, T. F. H. G., Soong, G. C., Mazanec, M. & Ravdin, J. I. (2004) Identification of the Entamoeba histolytica galactose-inhibitable lectin epitopes recognized by human immunoglobulin A antibodies following cure of amebic liver abscess. Infect. Immun. 72: 3974-3980.

Adedayo, O. & Nasiiro, R. (2004) Intestinal parasitoses. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 96: 93-96.

Akisu, C., Aksoy, U., Cetin, H., Ustun, S. & Akisu, M. (2004) Effect of human milk and colostrum on Entamoeba histolytica. World. J. Gastroenterol. 10: 741-742.

Ali, V., Hashimoto, T., Shigeta, Y. & Nozaki, T. (2004) Molecular and biochemical characterization of d-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from Entamoeba histolytica. Eur. J. Biochem. 271: 2670-2681.

Ali, V., Shigeta, Y., Tokumoto, U., Takahashi, Y. & Nozaki, T. (2004) An intestinal parasitic protist, Entamoeba histolytica, possesses a non-redundant nitrogen fixation-like system for iron-sulfur cluster assembly under anaerobic conditions. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 16863-16874.

Andra, J., Berninghausen, O. & Leippe, M. (2004) Membrane lipid composition protects Entamoeba histolytica from self-destruction by its pore-forming toxins. FEBS Lett. 564: 109-115.

Baldo, E. T., Belizario, V. Y., De Leon, W. U., Kong, H. H. & Chung, D. I. (2004) Infection status of intestinal parasites in children living in residential institutions in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Korean J. Parasitol. 42: 67-70.

Barbosa-Sabanero, G. & Avila, E. E. (2004) Recognition of Entamoeba histolytica 115-kDa surface protein by human secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies from asymptomatic carriers. J. Parasitol. 90: 373-378.

Batista Ede, J. & de Souza, W. (2004) Involvement of protein kinases on the process of erythrophagocytis by Entamoeba histolytica. Cell Biol. Int. 28: 243-248.

Battikhi, M. N. (2004) Bloody diarrhoea cases caused by Shigella and amoeba in Jordan. New Microbiol. 27: 37-47.

Beg, M. A., Kobayashi, S., Hussainy, A. S., Hamada, A., Okuzawa, E., Smego Jr, R. A. & Hussain, R. (2004) An experimental model for amoebic abscess production in the cheek pouch of the Syrian golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Parasitology Int. 53: 247-254.

Bravo-Torres, J. C., Villagomez-Castro, J. C., Calvo-Mendez, C., Flores-Carreon, A. & Lopez-Romero, E. (2004) Purification and biochemical characterisation of a membrane-bound alpha-glucosidase from the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Int. J. Parasitol. 34: 455-462.

Chakrabarty, P., Sethi, D. K., Padhan, N., Kaur, K. J., Salunke, D. M., Bhattacharya, S. & Bhattacharya, A. (2004) Identification and characterization of EhCaBP2. A second member of the calcium-binding protein family of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 12898-12908.

Chava, A. K., Bandyopadhyay, S., Chatterjee, M. & Mandal, C. (2004) Sialoglycans in protozoal diseases: their detection, modes of acquisition and emerging biological roles. Glycoconj. J. 20: 199-206.

Chavez-Munguia, B., Hernandez-Ramirez, V., Angel, A., Rios, A., Talamas-Rohana, P., Gonzalez-Robles, A., Gonzalez-Lazaro, M. & Martinez-Palomo, A. (2004) Entamoeba histolytica: ultrastructure of trophozoites recovered from experimental liver lesions. Exp. Parasitol. 107: 39-46.

Collins, L. J., Poole, A. M. & Penny, D. (2003) Using ancestral sequences to uncover potential gene homologues. Appl. Bioinformatics 2: S85-S95.

Doganci, L., Tanyuksel, M. & Doganci, T. (2004) Accurate diagnosis is essential for amebiasis. World. J. Gastroenterol. 10: 1231.

Elnekave, K., Siman-Tov, R. & Ankri, S. (2003) Consumption of L-arginine mediated by Entamoeba histolytica L-arginase (EhArg) inhibits amoebicidal activity and nitric oxide production by activated macrophages. Parasite Immunol. 25: 597-608.

Faruque, A. S. G., Malek, M. A., Khan, A. I., Huq, S., Salam, M. A. & Sack, D. A. (2004) Diarrhoea in elderly people: Aetiology, and clinical characteristics. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 36: 204-208.

Freitas, M. A., Vianna, E. N., Martins, A. S., Silva, E. F., Pesquero, J. L. & Gomes, M. A. (2004) A single step duplex PCR to distinguish Entamoeba histolytica from Entamoeba dispar. Parasitology 128: 625-628.

Gendrel, D. (2003) [Parasitic diarrhea in children (in French)]. Arch. Pediatr. 10 Suppl 5: 557s-562s.

Gendrel, D. (2003) [Parasitic diarrhea in eutrophic and malnourished children (in French)]. Med. Trop. (Mars) 63: 442-844.

Goncalves, M. L., da Silva, V. L., de Andrade, C. M., Reinhard, K., da Rocha, G. C., Le Bailly, M., Bouchet, F., Ferreira, L. F. & Araujo, A. (2004) Amoebiasis distribution in the past: first steps using an immunoassay technique. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 98: 88-91.

Guevara-Gonzalez, L. & Mendez-Sanchez, N. (2002) Amebic liver abscess and liver cirrhosis. Ann. Hepatol. 1: 44.

Guevara-Gonzalez, L. & Mendez-Sanchez, N. (2002) Amebic liver abscess open to the inferior vena cava. Ann. Hepatol. 1: 90.

Gupta, Y. K., Gupta, M., Aneja, S. & Kohli, K. (2004) Current drug therapy of protozoal diarrhoea. Indian J. Pediatr. 71: 55-58.

Hailemariam, G., Kassu, A., Abebe, G., Abate, E., Damte, D., Mekonnen, E. & Ota, F. (2004) Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS and HIV seronegative individuals in a teaching hospital, Ethiopia. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 57: 41-43.

Han, K. L., Yong, T. S., Ryu, J. S., Hwang, U. W. & Park, S. J. (2004) Identification of the hybrid cluster protein, HCP, from amitochondriate eukaryotes and its phylogenetic implications. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 14: 134-139.

Hecht, O., Van Nuland, N. A., Schleinkofer, K., Dingley, A. J., Bruhn, H., Leippe, M. & Grotzinger, J. (2004) Solution structure of the pore-forming protein of Entamoeba histolytica. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 17834-17841.

Kaketa, S. (2004) [Multiple colonic ulcer developing in a 64-year-old HIV-positive man (in Japanese)]. J. Uoeh. 26: 119-120.

Kebede, A., Verweij, J. J., Endeshaw, T., Messele, T., Tasew, G., Petros, B. & Polderman, A. M. (2004) The use of real-time PCR to identify Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar infections in prisoners and primary-school children in Ethiopia. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 98: 43-48.

Kebede, A., Verweij, J. J., Petros, B. & Polderman, A. M. (2004) Misleading microscopy in amoebiasis. Trop. Med. Int. Health 9: 651-652.

Kim, Y. S., Kim, J. S., Lee, D. H., Jung, H. C., Song, I. S. & Kim, J. M. (2004) Gene expressions of proinflammatory cytokines in the colonic mucosa in a patient with amebic colitis. J. Gastroenterol. 39: 496-497.

Kirch, A. K., Agossou, A., Banla, M., Hoffmann, W. H., Schulz-Key, H. & Soboslay, P. T. (2004) Parasite-specific antibody and cytokine profiles in newborns from Plasmodium falciparum and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar-infected mothers. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 15: 133-141.

Kucik, C. J., Martin, G. L. & Sortor, B. V. (2004) Common intestinal parasites. Am. Fam. Physician 69: 1161-1168.

Kudara, N., Oana, S., Onodera, K., Ishida, W., Terui, T., Endoh, M., Chiba, T., Inomata, M., Orii, S. & Suzuki, K. (2004) [Amebic liver abscess with panperitonitis treated successfully with intravenous injection of metronidazole (in Japanese)]. Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi 93: 150-152.

Lauwaet, T., Jose Oliveira, M., Callewaert, B., De Bruyne, G., Mareel, M. & Leroy, A. (2004) Proteinase inhibitors TPCK and TLCK prevent Entamoeba histolytica induced disturbance of tight junctions and microvilli in enteric cell layers in vitro. Int. J. Parasitol. 34: 785-794.

Lauwaet, T., Oliveira, M. J., De Bruyne, G., Bruchhaus, I., Duchene, M., Mareel, M. & Leroy, A. (2004) Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites transfer lipophosphopeptidoglycans to enteric cell layers. Int. J. Parasitol. 34: 549-556.

Legesse, M. & Erko, B. (2004) Zoonotic intestinal parasites in Papio anubis (baboon) and Cercopithecus aethiops (vervet) from four localities in Ethiopia. Acta Trop. 90: 231-236.

Leon-Avila, G. & Tovar, J. (2004) Mitosomes of Entamoeba histolytica are abundant mitochondrion-related remnant organelles that lack a detectable organellar genome. Microbiology 150: 1245-1250.

Lodhi, S., Sarwari, A. R., Muzammil, M., Salam, A. & Smego, R. A. (2004) Features distinguishing amoebic from pyogenic liver abscess: a review of 577 adult cases. Trop. Med. Int. Health 9: 718-273.

Madriz, X., Martinez, M. B., Rodriguez, M. A., Sierra, G., Martinez-Lopez, C., Riveron, A. M., Flores, L. & Orozco, E. (2004) Expression in fibroblasts and in live animals of Entamoeba histolytica polypeptides EhCP112 and EhADH112. Microbiology 150: 1251-1260.

Makioka, A., Kumagai, M., Kobayashi, S. & Takeuchi, T. (2004) Different effects of cytochalasins on the growth and differentiation of Entamoeba invadens. Parasitol. Res. 93: 68-71.

Martinez-Lopez, C., Orozco, E., Sanchez, T., Garcia-Perez, R. M., Hernandez-Hernandez, F. & Rodriguez, M. A. (2004) The EhADH112 recombinant polypeptide inhibits cell destruction and liver abscess formation by Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. Cell. Microbiol. 6: 367-376.

Misra, S. P., Misra, V., Dwivedi, M., Singh, P. A. & Barthwal, R. (2004) Factors influencing colonic involvement in patients with amebic liver abscess. Gastrointest. Endosc. 59: 512-516.

Miyake, Y., Karanis, P. & Uga, S. (2004) Cryopreservation of protozoan parasites. Cryobiology 48: 1-7.

Moran Sanchez, S., Banos Madrid, R., Gallardo Sanchez, F., Nicolas De Prado, I. & Serrano Jimenez, A. (2004) [Amebic colitis in an immunocompetent host (in Spanish)]. An. Med. Interna 21: 238-240.

Nesbitt, R. A., Mosha, F. W., Katki, H. A., Ashraf, M., Assenga, C. & Lee, C. M. (2004) Amebiasis and comparison of microscopy to ELISA technique in detection of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 96: 671-677.

Ohnishi, K., Kato, Y., Imamura, A., Fukayama, M., Tsunoda, T., Sakaue, Y., Sakamoto, M. & Sagara, H. (2004) Present characteristics of symptomatic Entamoeba histolytica infection in the big cities of Japan. Epidemiol. Infect. 132: 57-60.

Pacheco, J., Shibayama, M., Campos, R., Beck, D. L., Houpt, E., Petri, W. A., Jr. & Tsutsumi, V. (2004) In vitro and in vivo interaction of Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin with various target cells: an immunocytochemical analysis. Parasitol. Int. 53: 35-47.

Pinheiro, S. M., Carneiro, R. M., Aca, I. S., Irmao, J. I., Morais, M. A., Jr., Coimbra, M. R. & Carvalho, L. B., Jr. (2004) Determination of the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar in the Pernambuco state of northeastern Brazil by a polymerase chain reaction. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 70: 221-224.

Ponce Gordo, F., Martinez Diaz, R. A. & Herrera, S. (2004) Entamoeba struthionis n.sp. (Sarcomastigophora: Endamoebidae) from ostriches (Struthio camelus). Vet. Parasitol. 119: 327-335.

Rawal, S., Majumdar, S., Dhawan, V. & Vohra, H. (2004) Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin depletes antioxidant defences of target epithelial cells. Parasitology 128: 617-24.

Roy, D. & Lohia, A. (2004) Sequence divergence of Entamoeba histolytica tubulin is responsible for its altered tertiary structure. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 319: 1010-1016.

Saavedra, E., Olivos, A., Encalada, R. & Moreno-Sanchez, R. (2004) Entamoeba histolytica: kinetic and molecular evidence of a previously unidentified pyruvate kinase. Exp. Parasitol. 106: 11-21.

Sanchez-Ramirez, B., Ramirez-Gil, M., Vazquez-Moctezuma, I., Ramos-Martinez, E. & Talamas-Rohana, P. (2004) Entamoeba histolytica: induction of cyclooxygenase-2 expression during amoebic liver abscess formation in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Exp. Parasitol. 106: 119-125.

Sarowska, J., Wojnicz, D., Kaczkowski, H. & Jankowski, S. (2004) [The occurrence of Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in patients with periodontal diseases, immunosuppression and genetic diseases (in Polish)]. Adv. Clin. Exper. Med. 13: 291-297.

Sawangjaroen, N., Sawangjaroen, K. & Poonpanang, P. (2004) Effects of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum root and Quercus infectoria nut gall on caecal amoebiasis in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 91: 357-60.

Severi, C., Zippi, M., Baccini, F., Gentile, G., Bezzi, M., Fiocca, F. & Caprilli, R. (2004) Amebic liver abscess, mirizzi syndrome, and acute hepatic failure. Dig. Dis. Sci. 49: 304-307.

Simsek, H., Elsurer, R., Sokmensuer, C., Balaban, H. Y. & Tatar, G. (2004) Ameboma mimicking carcinoma of the cecum: Case report. Gastrointest. Endosc. 59: 453-454.

Singh, D., Naik, S. R. & Naik, S. (2004) Contact of Entamoeba histolytica with baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) cell line on cysteine proteinase activity. Indian J. Med. Res. 119: 157-161.

Singh, S., Bharti, N., Naqvi, F. & Azam, A. (2004) Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antiamoebic activity of 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazones and their palladium (II) and ruthenium (II) complexes. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 39: 459-465.

Stockinger, Z. T. (2004) Colonic ameboma: its appearance on CT: report of a case. Dis. Colon Rectum 47: 527-529.

Tachibana, H., Cheng, X. J., Masuda, G., Horiki, N. & Takeuchi, T. (2004) Evaluation of recombinant fragments of Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin intermediate subunit for serodiagnosis of amebiasis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 1069-1074.

Torre, A. & Kershenobich, D. (2002) Amebic liver abscess. Ann. Hepatol. 1: 45-47.

Ullu, E., Tschudi, C. & Chakraborty, T. (2004) RNA interference in protozoan parasites. Cell. Microbiol. 6: 509-519.

Utrera-Barillas, D., Velazquez, J. R., Enciso, A., Cruz, S. M., Rico, G., Curiel-Quesada, E., Teran, L. M. & Kretschmer, R. R. (2003) An anti-inflammatory oligopeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica down-regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines. Parasite Immunol. 25: 475-482.

van der Giezen, M., Cox, S. & Tovar, J. (2004) The iron-sulfur cluster assembly genes iscS and iscU of Entamoeba histolytica were acquired by horizontal gene transfer. BMC Evol. Biol. 4: 7.

Ventura-Juarez, J., Jarillo-Luna, R. A., Fuentes-Aguilar, E., Pineda-Vazquez, A., Munoz-Fernandez, L., Madrid-Reyes, J. I. & Campos-Rodriguez, R. (2003) Human amoebic hepatic abscess: in situ interactions between trophozoites, macrophages, neutrophils and T cells. Parasite Immunol. 25: 503-511.

Verweij, J. J., Blange, R. A., Templeton, K., Schinkel, J., Brienen, E. A., van Rooyen, M. A., van Lieshout, L. & Polderman, A. M. (2004) Simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in fecal samples by using multiplex real-time PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 1220-1223.

Welter, B. H. & Temesvari, L. A. (2004) A unique Rab GTPase, EhRabA, of Entamoeba histolytica, localizes to the leading edge of motile cells. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 135: 185-195.

Zhang, Z. & Stanley, S. L., Jr. (2004) Stereotypic and specific elements of the human colonic response to Entamoeba histolytica and Shigella flexneri. Cell. Microbiol. 6: 535-554.

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